R-12 to R-134A Refrigerant Retrofit (2023)

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R-12 to R-134A Refrigerant Retrofit (2)

by Larry Carley copyright AA1Car.com

If you drive an older vehicle (pre-1994), the air conditioning system contains R-12 refrigerant (Freon). As long as the A/C system has no leaks and it cooling normally, there is no need to convert from R-12 to the new "ozone safe" R-134a refrigerant. But if your A/C system has lost it's charge because of a leak, collision damage, or the need to open it to replace a compressor, hose or other component, you may have to convert from R-12 to R-134a when you recharge the system

Why? Because R-12 is no longer produced in the U.S. Supplies of recycled R-12 still exist, and some R-12 is still brought in from offshore suppliers. But it is hard to find and expensive. That's why many people simply recharge their older R-12 air conditioning system with R-134a after repairs have been made.

R-134a Retrofit Conversion Costs

Does it make economic sense to retrofit an older vehicle to R-134a if the A/C system has lost its refrigerant charge or needs major repairs? The older a vehicle gets, the more it depreciates. By the time it is 15 or more years old, it may only be worth a few hundred dollars. Many owners will not put any more money into an older vehicle unless the repairs are absolutely necessary to keep it running. Even then, it may be less expensive to get rid of the vehicle or to junk it than to fix it up. Even so, A/C is something that's hard to do without especially during hot weather. Hot summer temperatures and high humidity can make driving in city traffic unbearable.

A professional retrofit by a repair shop can cost hundreds of dollars, depending on what they do. But on many older vehicles, you can save money and do the job yourself - if you have some know-how and the right equipment.


There is NO reason to retrofit a vehicle to R-134a as long as the R-12 system is cooling properly and contains a normal charge of refrigerant. A/C systems designed to use R-12 will cool best when charged with R-12 refrigerant. Even if the system leaks, repairing the leaks and recharging it with R-12 is usually the best repair alternative. Converting to R-134a typically reduces cooling performance somewhat, and may require some additional modifications depending on the vehicle model year.

Where retrofit makes the most economic sense is when an A/C system requires major repairs such as a new compressor, condenser or evaporator.

The average repair bill to retrofit when other A/C repairs are needed, according to the Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS), is about $100 over and above any other repairs that may be needed (such as replacing the compressor, condenser or evaporator, etc.). The cost to retrofit usually does not add that much to the total repair bill because converting 1990s vintage vehicles to R-134a in most cases is fairly easy and does not require many (if any) changes. If the vehicle has barrier style hoses and the compressor and seals are compatible with R-134a, the only thing that has to be changed is the compressor lubricant.


A retrofit can be done one of two ways. The first is to follow the vehicle manufacturer recommended retrofit procedure. This generally involves removing all the old mineral oil from the system, replacing the accumulator or receiver/dryer with one that contains X-7 desiccant, replacing O-rings (if required), installing or replacing a high pressure cutout switch (which many shops seem to forget), changing the orifice tube or expansion valve (if required), then adding the specified PAG oil and recharging the system with R-134a. On some applications, installing a more efficient condenser may be recommended for improved cooling performance. After the modifications are made, the system is recharged to about 85 to 90% of its original capacity with R-134a.

Federal law also requires the permanent installation of R-134a fittings on the high and low service ports to reduce the chance of refrigerant cross-contamination the next time the vehicle is serviced. Labels must also be installed to identify the system has been converted to R-134a.

OEM R-12 to R-134a Retrofit Bulletins

When the automotive industry made the shift to R-134a back in 1995-1995, they all published Technical Service Bulletins that covered retrofit procedures for their various makes and models. It takes some searching, but these detailed bulletins are still available on the various OEM Technical Service websites, most of which charge a fee to access.

(Video) How To Retrofit an AC System R-12 to R-134a -EricTheCarGuy

Click Here for an example of Toyota's TSB that covers R-12 to R-134a retrofits on their vehicles.

You can also find OEM Retrofit bulletins on aftermarket service information websites such as AlldataDIY.com and Mitchell1DIY.com.. These sites also charge a small subscription fee.

R-12 to R-134A Refrigerant Retrofit (3)
Installing service fitting adapters allows R-134a to be put into a R-12 system.
These adapters are available at most auto parts stores.

Basic "Generic" Retrofit Procedure that Works on Most Vehicles

The other approach to retrofit is the "quick and cheap" one. On many 1989 through 1993 vintage vehicles, R-12 A/C systems can be converted by simply recovering any refrigerant that is still in the system, adding POE oil (which is compatible with both types of refrigerant), and recharging to 85 to 90% capacity with R-134a.

A simple retrofit may therefore cost no more than a few cans of refrigerant and some compressor oil -- provided there's nothing else wrong with the A/C system. But simple low cost retrofits may not give the best cooling performance, and may not even be possible on some vehicles. Any compressor that has Viton seals is not a candidate for retrofit. This includes original equipment compressors such as Tecumseh HR980, some Keihin compressors and some Panasonic rotary valve style compressors on older Japanese cars. On these, the compressor must be replaced.

Compressor durability can be a concern on some older applications. Because R-134a raises compressor discharge pressures and increases the compressors work load, some lightweight compressors may not be rugged enough to tolerate R-134a over the long haul. This applies to the Harrison DA6 and Ford FX-15 compressors. The Harrison DA6 can be replaced with a HD-6, HR-6 or HR-6HE compressor. The Ford FX-15 compressor can be replaced with a FS-10 compressor.

Regardless of which retrofit method is used, cooling performance will vary depending on the design of the system. As a rule, expect anywhere from a 3% to 15% decrease in cooling performance when an R-12 system is converted to R-134a. Systems with relatively large or efficient condensers will experience less of a drop in cooling performance with R-134a than those with smaller or less efficient condensers.


One way to improve cooling performance when retrofitting an older R-12 system to R-134a is to install a "variable valve" orifice tube in place of the standard fixed orifice tube. These aftermarket variable orifice tubes allow the flow rate through the valve to change for better cooling at idle and low speeds. Such a valve can lower the A/C outlet air temperature by as much as 5 to 8 degrees, which can make quite a difference if the vehicle is crawling along in stop-and-go city traffic.

Adding an extra cooling fan can help boost cooling performance, especially at idle and low speeds. Many older rear-wheel drive cars and trucks do not have a separate electric fan for the A/C condenser. They rely solely on the belt-driven fan for cooling, which may not be adequate in extremely hot weather with R-134a. Installing an auxiliary fan that comes on when the A/C is turned on give provide the extra airflow needed to carry away the heat.

Installing a larger or more efficient condenser can also help compensate for losses in cooling efficiency with R-134a. If the original condenser or evaporator is being replaced because of a leak, damage or defect, make sure the replacement unit has the same or better BTU rating. Some aftermarket replacement condensers and evaporators may not deliver the same cooling performance, and create a problem you did not have before.

When a compressor fails, it can throw metallic debris into the system. Most of the junk ends up in the bottom of the condenser, but some of it can also be blown back into the suction hose. Flushing the condenser, hoses and evaporator with refrigerant or an approved solvent may remove most of the debris, but parallel flow condensers cannot be flushed effectively. Replacement is often recommended if debris is found in the system. Most experts also recommend installing an in-line filter (high side and/or low side) to protect the replacement compressor and orifice tube or expansion valve. There are also filter screens that can be installed in the suction line to prevent any debris from reentering the compressor, too.


The vehicle manufacturers do not approve of any alternative refrigerants other than R-134a for retrofit. However, there are a variety of alternative refrigerants that meet EPA SNAP (Significant New Alternatives Policy) rules for environmental acceptance. Most of these are blends that are formulated to replace R-12 in older vehicles.

(Video) Tips for converting or retrofitting A/C systems from R12 to R134a-Rick's Shop

WARNING! Some so-called drop-in replacement refrigerants for older R-12 systems contain flammable hydrocarbons (propane, butane, isobuane, etc.). Flammable refrigerants do not meet the EPA's criteria for environmental acceptability or safety. These products include OZ-12, HC-12a, R-176 and R-405a. flammable reffrigerants are illegal because the EPA says they pose a significant fire danger to a vehicle's occupants should a leak occur. The EPA says a spark from a cigarette or a switch could ignite leaking refrigerant causing an explosion and fire.

To be fair, the makers of HC-12a contend that the flammability danger is highly exaggerated and there is "no evidence" to support claims that a cigarette or spark could ignite their product. They also contend that the EPA's position on their product is unjustified, and that HC-12a has been successfully used in many vehicle A/C systems worldwide with no accidents or injuries due to ignition.

Even so, we do NOT endorse or recommend using flammable refrigerants.

For more information, see Flammable Refrigerants.


In spite of the ban on R12 in the U.S., it is still manufactured offshore in some countries. We have heard numerous reports of bootleg R-12 coming into the U.S. market from Mexico. Bootleg R-12 obviously eliminates the need to retrofit your A/C system if you can find it, but we would warn that the purity and quality of bootleg R-12 is questionaable. It often contains other refrigerants (R-22, R-134a), flammable hydrocarbons (propane, butane, etc.), moisture and air. Poor quality R-12 may not perform well n your A/C system, and it may even cause problems such as noisy operation, sludge contamination and compressor failure. We do NOT recommend bootleg R-12 for these reasons.


It is important to remember that R-134a or any other alternative refrigerant cannot be mixed with R-12 or used to top off an R-12 system. If an A/C system still contains any R-12 at all, it must be removed using approved recovery equipment (venting is not allowed) before a new refrigerant is added to the system. This is an absolute must to prevent cross-contamination of refrigerants and cooling performance problems.

Mixing different refrigerants can cause big problems. For one, it will increase the system operating pressure. This can result in a loss of cooling performance and may overtax the compressor to the point where it fails. R-134a and mineral oil will not mix. So if somebody recharges an R-12 system with R-134a and does not add a compatible lubricant, the compressor will soon fail.

MACs did a field survey of older vehicles with R-12 A/C systems a number of years ago, and here is what they found:

  • 57% had R-12 and R-134a mixed together (up 10% over last year).
  • 20% had R-22 in R-12 systems.
  • 20% had two or more refrigerants mixed together .
  • 30% contained hydrocarbons (propane or other flammable hydrocarbons).
  • 2% had too much air.

The same survey also revealed that only one out of 10 technicians in the U.S. knew about EPA SNAP rules, the Significant New Alternatives Policy regulations that prohibit refrigerant venting, require recovery and recycling, prohibit the intermixing of different refrigerants or the use of flammable refrigerants.

Two out of five technicians also did not know the service fittings on an A/C system MUST be changed if the system is converted from R-12 to R-134a or anything else. And three out of five technicians did not know mixing R-12 and R-134a could cause problems.

To help people figure how how o safely convert an older vehicle with an R-12 A/C system to R-134a, we put together the following reference propgram that summarizes the procedure for retrofitting your vehicle to R-134a:

(Video) In-depth look at r12 to r134a conversion for 88-93 GM trucks

Click Here for info about A/C R-134a Retrofit Guide

R-12 to R-134A Refrigerant Retrofit (5) More Air Conditioning Articles:

A/C Cooling Problem: Blows Warm Air Only No Cool Air

Troubleshoot Automatic Climate Control System

Troubleshooting A/C Cooling Problems with Temperature

How To Recharge Your Car's Air Conditioner

Refrigerant Contamination

Alternative Refrigerants

New Automotive Refrigerants

Flammable Refrigerants

A/C Compressor Failures

A/C Compressor Oil Recommendations and Precautions

A/C Condenser Flushing

Click Here to See More Carley Automotive Technical Articles

(Video) How to Convert Your Car's A/C System from R12 to R134a

Offsite R-12 Retrofit Resources:

e38.org Acura Retrofit Procedures

e38.org Chrysler Retrofit Procedures

e38.org Ford Retrofit Prodecures

e38.org General Motors Retrofit Procedures

e38.org Honda Retrofit Procedures

e38.org Toyota Retrofit Procedures

Recommendations for Retrofitting R-12 Sanden Compressors to R-134a

Converting Older GM cars from R-12 to R-134a

Be sure to visit our other websites:
R-12 to R-134A Refrigerant Retrofit (7)

Auto Repair Yourself

Carley Automotive Software



(Video) How to put R134 into a R12 system




R-12 to R-134A Refrigerant Retrofit? ›

Compared to R12, R134a refrigerant is lighter. You must charge the new system to between 75 and 85% of its factory-set capacity to ensure proper cooling. Using the specs for the current system, multiply the R12 charge by 0.9 or 90% to determine the refrigerant capacity. From this number, subtract 1/4, or 0.25 pounds.

When retrofitting a system from R12 to R134a what is required to be done? ›

Compared to R12, R134a refrigerant is lighter. You must charge the new system to between 75 and 85% of its factory-set capacity to ensure proper cooling. Using the specs for the current system, multiply the R12 charge by 0.9 or 90% to determine the refrigerant capacity. From this number, subtract 1/4, or 0.25 pounds.

How do you convert R12 to R134a capacity? ›

The conversion is determined by multiplying the R12 charge value by . 75 (R12 charge x . 75 = R134a charge).

What percentage of R12 to R134a conversion? ›

Charge with 134a between 70-80% of the original R12 charge amount. Note: Hot gas valve will need to be adjusted during the charging process to properly adjust the low side by-pass pressure to 20psi. Replace any O-rings with 134a compatible.

Can R12 be replaced with R134a? ›

There are three replacement refrigerant options for R12 systems: R134a, R401a, R401b. R134a is regarded, by manufacturers and adherents to the Montreal Protocols alike, as the best replacement refrigerant.

What happens if you put R12 in a R134a system? ›

R134a systems operate at higher discharge-side pressures than R12, which can cause compressor seals to leak.

What is the most important service caution for R12 and R134a systems? ›

R12 and R134a should not be mixed, nor should one be used in a system designed for the other. Possible damage to soft components, such as hoses and seals, could result causing leaks and or malfunction. Use only the specified refrigerant when servicing vapor cycle air conditioning systems.

Which of the following is recommended while converting an R12 system to R134a? ›

What is recommended for R-12 to R-134a conversion? Evacuate system for at least 30 minutes to ensure all R-12 is removed.

Does R12 get colder than R134a? ›

R12 can blow 6 to 7 degrees cooler than R134a and is 15% more efficient. R134a systems require larger condensers and higher operating pressures than R12 systems because R134a doesn't have as high of a heat transfer rate as R12 (which has a heavier molecular size than R134a).

Can you still recharge R12? ›

You can easily add new refrigerant using a supply hose (including a pressure gauge) and an adequate supply of refrigerant (or a complete recharge kit).

What are ideal R12 refrigerant pressures? ›

Detailed Solution
RefrigerantEvaporator pressure (At -15°C, in bar)Condensor pressure (At -15°C, in bar)
9 more rows
Apr 14, 2023

What is the best substitute for R12? ›

RS-24 is a non flammable blend of HFC 134a, HFC 125, butane and isopentane which has a zero ODP and is also compatible with both traditional and synthetic lubricants so that a retrofit is not required. RS-24 is a “Drop-in” alternative for R12 which also provides a long term solution at the same time.

What are the advantages of using R134a compared to R12? ›

R12 contains CFCs like hairspray once did, that is potentially damaging to the ozone layer. It was banned because of this potential environmental risk and replaced by 134a because 134a, using synthetic oil over mineral oil, does not have as much of a negative environmental impact that R12 does.

Can I mix 12a and 134a? ›

You should NEVER mix refrigerants or mix incompatible oils. Putting a 12a refrigerant into a system that had R134a, without a complete and thorough flush of ALL components, and purge of the flush chemical, is called CONTAMINATION.

Is mineral oil used with R12 AC systems? ›

Summary: Mineral Oil is used on R-12 systems, primarily on cars built prior to 1995. Polyelkylene Glycol (PAG) oil is a synthetic oil used by OEMs in their R-134a systems. PAG oils are harsher than mineral oils, and may cause skin irritation and damage O-rings and seals.

Can you reuse contaminated refrigerant? ›

In general, if the refrigerant is not contaminated it can be recycled and reused. You can typically take the noncontaminated refrigerant back to the wholesaler for exchange. If the refrigerant is contaminated, you'll need to send it to a reclamation facility.

Why has R 12 refrigerant been phased out in favor of R134a? ›

R-12 was phased out in accordance with the Montreal Protocol in the 1990s, as it was found that the chlorine contained in the refrigerant was creating a hole in the ozone layer when it was vented into the atmosphere.

What are the disadvantages of R12 refrigerant? ›

It is completely a safe refrigerant non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-explosive, highly stable compound under extreme operating conditions. However, when brought in contact in an open flame or electric heating element R12 decomposes into products which are highly toxic.

When did they stop using R12 refrigerant? ›

For many years, R12 was the automotive refrigerant standard. It was effective and cheap. However, scientists quickly discovered its sinister secret: It was partially responsible for the rapidly-depleting ozone layer. In 1994, it was banned from all new cars sold in the US.

How many times can an expendable refrigerant be used? ›

Overtime expendable refrigerants are very expensive to use due to visible and hidden costs. Since they are only used once and not recovered it is necessary to continually replenish the supply.

Is R134a more likely to absorb moisture than R12? ›

Water Solubility: Liquid R134a, like R22, can absorb much more water than R12 therefore it would be less likely for a low temperature system to exhibit capillary tube blockage due to ice buildup. However, this does not reduce the need for a dry system.

Does R134a have the exact same temperature and pressure relationship as R12? ›


R-134a has a very similar pressure-temperature relationship when compared to R-12 (See Figure 3). However, at the lower temperature, R-134a has a bit lower pressures than R-12. Also, at higher temperatures, such as 65°F, R-134a has a bit lower pressure when compared to R-12.

How much would it cost to recharge R12 refrigerant car? ›

A professional AC recharge cost ranges from $150 – $300 on average depending on the make and model of your vehicle. Due to refrigerant losses that occur over time, this service is one that should be added to your vehicle maintenance schedule.

Can I sell my R12? ›

A very frequent question people ask us is whether it is legal to sell R12 refrigerant. The answer is yes – but not to just anybody. It is only possible to sell Freon, R-12 or any other CFC to EPA-certified technicians, like the experts at Refrigerant Finders.

Is R12 obsolete? ›

The production of the popular R 12 was discontinued in 1995 due to concerns about the ozone layer.

What is the low-side pressure on a r12a? ›

The low-side pressure does read about 35 lbs while running, and 70 lbs when the engine is off.

What should the high and low-side pressures be? ›

Actual readings will vary according to ambient temperature. The low-side should be near 30 PSI at 90 degrees Fahrenheit or less. Pressure that is too much lower or higher shows there is a problem. On a properly working system, high-side pressure will be about twice the ambient temperature, plus 50 PSI.

What is normal AC freon pressure? ›

Most technicians in the HVAC field know the normal range of operation for the low-pressure side of an air conditioning system. This tends to be around 60 PSI to 85 PSI for R-22 and 105 PSI to 143 PSI for R-410A and is dependent upon operating conditions.

What are the disadvantages of R134a? ›

Adverse Health effects. The inhalation of high concentrations of R134a vapour may cause temporary central nervous system depression, with narcosis, lethargy and anaesthetic effects. Continued breathing of high concentrations of R134a vapours may produce cardiac irregularities, unconsciousness and death.

Is 134a better than 12a? ›

HC-12a provides better cooling than an R-12 system retrofitted to R-134a, with much greater energy efficiency as well. Unlike R-134a, HC-12a is completely compatible with the hoses and oils used in R-12 systems, making the conversion much easier to accomplish. HC-12a is also patent-free due to its non-synthetic nature.

What kind of oil is used in R12 to R134a? ›


Ester oil can be used with R12 and R134a refrigerants.

What refrigerant oil should be used in an R134a air conditioning system? ›

PAG oil: Polyalkylene Glycol or PAG oil is a man-made lubricant used in both R134a systems and the latest R1234yf. There are several types of PAG oil based on the viscosity of the oil -- PAG46, PAG100 and PAG150 -- and the type of refrigerant it is designed for.

Do you need to put PAG oil in AC condenser? ›

When replacing a part like the condenser it is a good idea to add some extra oil with the new refrigerant. Most refrigerants do have some oil in them which should be enough. The majority of the oil in the system stays in the compressor so you should not have any issues if you do not add any more.

Can a compressor burnout cause contaminated refrigerant? ›

Mild burnouts, where the acidic contamination is mild and not widespread, it may be economical to save the refrigerant charge (although not recommended). If there has been a severe burnout, the oil will be discolored, there is an acidic smell, and components are contaminated throughout the system.

What is the fastest way to recover or remove refrigerant? ›

In the liquid recovery method, you are able to transfer refrigerant while it's still in the liquid state. This method is especially good for transferring refrigerant from one container to another. Of the three recovery methods, liquid recovery is the fastest.

Can you reuse refrigerant after compressor burnout? ›

It may be possible to reuse it if it can be cleaned up adequately. However, this may be not be possible or may be very difficult to do in the field. Normally it's best to properly dispose of the old refrigerant and recharge the system with new. Next, the old compressor needs to be removed from the system.

What is the process of AC system retrofitting? ›

Air con retrofitting is when an air conditioner is given new parts and systems to help with its longevity, cost effectiveness and energy efficiency. Upgrades can include: s variable speed drives, new motors, air handling units and motion sensors, are performed by licensed technicians.

Which of the following must always be replaced when a retrofit is performed? ›

Filter Driers Filter driers and/or cores must always be replaced during retrofit.

What is refrigerant retrofitting? ›

Retrofitting is an in-depth process that can help refrigeration plants accommodate their environmental control needs. Additionally, retrofitting can help to create viability for old and outdated equipment that needs to be used in a modern working environment.

What are three methods of retrofitting? ›

There are several techniques which are used to retrofit structural members such as section enlargement, external plate bonding, external post-tensioning, grouting, and fibre reinforced polymer composites.

What is retrofitting solution? ›

Retrofitting is updating or adding equipment, sensors, or services to existing hardware so that it is able to make use of new technologies.

Why has R12 refrigerant been phased out in favor of R134a? ›

R-12 was phased out in accordance with the Montreal Protocol in the 1990s, as it was found that the chlorine contained in the refrigerant was creating a hole in the ozone layer when it was vented into the atmosphere.

How do you handle retrofit errors? ›

  1. Problem Use Case. ...
  2. User API response JSON. ...
  3. Now you have create a POJO for parsing this JSON object. ...
  4. API response in case of location is string array. ...
  5. Solution. ...
  6. Create a response wrapper class. ...
  7. Create a error wrapper class. ...
  8. Create a JSON Converter Factory.
Jan 19, 2019

What is the difference between replacement and retrofitting? ›

First, a distinction: A full replacement means the entire window frame and sash are removed. A retrofit, on the other hand, means that only the window sash is removed. In this scenario, the frame and trim remain in place, making it less expensive and labour-intensive than a full replacement.

Which of the following classes are required to work with retrofit? ›

Classes Used in Retrofit
  • Model Class: A model class contains the objects to be obtained from the JSON file.
  • Retrofit Instance: This is a Java class. It is used to send requests to an API.
  • Interface Class: This is a Java class. It is used to define endpoints.
Aug 3, 2022

Which refrigerant below would be a good choice for retrofitting an existing R-22 air conditioning system? ›

The best replacement for R-22 Freon is usually R-407c. It has a very low loss in capacity (0 – 5%) relative to R-22 and is less expensive than many other R-22 replacement refrigerants. If a system has R22 in it already you cannot use a replacement refrigerant to simply add to the R22.

Which is best suited as a retrofit refrigerant for an R-22 residential air conditioning system? ›

Freon MO99 (R-438A) is the Preferred Alternative for Retrofitting.

Is it possible to upgrade refrigerant in an existing unit? ›

You cannot just switch refrigerants because R410-A and R-22 have different chemical properties. R410-A operates at a higher pressure. If you put R410-A into an R-22 system, the parts will rupture due to the increased force. You can convert your current system to one that runs on R-410A, but the cost will be high.


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