The Large Truck Crash Causation Study - Analysis Brief (2023) (2023)

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
Office of Research and Analysis
Publication No. FMCSA-RRA-07-017
July 2007

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) to examine the reasons for serious crashes involving large trucks (trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating over 10,000 pounds). From the 120,000 large truck crashes that occurred between April 2001 and December 2003, a nationally representative sample was selected. Each crash in the LTCCS sample involved at least one large truck and resulted in a fatality or injury.

The total LTCCS sample of 963 crashes involved 1,123 large trucks and 959 motor vehicles that were not large trucks. The 963 crashes resulted in 249 fatalities and 1,654 injuries. Of the 1,123 large trucks in the sample, 77 percent were tractors pulling a single semi-trailer, and 5 percent were trucks carrying hazardous materials. Of the 963 crashes in the sample, 73 percent involved a large truck colliding with at least one other vehicle.

(Video) Large Truck Crash Causal Factors Study

Defining Causation

Motor vehicle crashes are complex events. Usually they involve two or more vehicles. Elements that influence the occurrence of a crash may take place hours, days, or months before the crash. They include driver training and experience, vehicle design and manufacture, highway condition and traffic signaling, and weather conditions. Other elements may take place immediately before a crash, such as a decision to turn in traffic, a tire blowout, or snow. Crash reconstruction experts rarely conclude that crashes are the result of a single factor.

Fatigue, drinking alcohol, and speeding are major factors in motor vehicle crashes overall. Although their presence does not always result in a crash, these three factors, as well as other driver, vehicle, and environmental factors, can increase the risk that a crash will occur. In the LTCCS, 'causation' is defined in terms of the factors that are most likely to increase the risk that large trucks will be involved in serious crashes.

Data Collection

Data for the 963 crashes in the LTCCS sample were collected at 24 sites in 17 States. A crash researcher and a State truck inspector traveled to each crash site as soon as possible after the crash occurred. The researchers collected crash scene data through interviews with drivers, passengers, and witnesses, and the inspectors conducted thorough inspections of the trucks, the drivers' logbooks, and other documentation. After leaving the crash scene, the researchers collected additional data through interviews with motor carriers and, when the actual drivers could not be interviewed, surrogate drivers. The researchers also reviewed police crash reports, hospital records, and coroners' reports and revisited the crash scenes.

For each crash, data were collected on up to 1,000 elements, including the condition of the truck driver and the other drivers involved before the crash; the drivers' behavior during the crash; the condition of the trucks and other vehicles; roadway factors; and weather conditions. Data were coded by crash experts, difficult cases were reviewed by FMCSA and NHTSA staff, and completed cases were put into a publicly available electronic database on FMCSA's Web site.

National Crash Estimates

According to NHTSA's estimate, there were approximately 120,000 fatal and injury crashes nationwide during the 33-month study period that involved at least one large truck; 141,000 large trucks were involved in those crashes. Each of the 963 LTCCS study cases was assigned a sampling weight, which allows for national estimates of total fatal and injury truck crashes during the study period.

All study results presented here are national estimates for the 141,000 large trucks that were estimated by NHTSA to have been involved in fatal and injury crashes during the study period. The estimates may differ from true values, because they are based on a probability sample of crashes and not a census of all crashes. The size of the difference may vary, depending on which LTCCS sample is the focus of a particular table or analysis.

Coding Crash Causation Variables

Many variables were coded from the hundreds of data elements collected on each crash. Three key variables were coded for assessing crash risk:

(Video) Theories of accident causation

Critical Event:The action or event that put the vehicle or vehicles on a course that made the collision unavoidable. The critical event is assigned to the vehicle that took the action that made the crash inevitable.

Critical Reason:The immediate reason for the critical event (i.e., the failure leading to the critical event). The critical reason is assigned to the vehicle coded with the critical event in the crash. It can be coded as a driver error, vehicle failure, or environmental condition (roadway or weather).
Associated Factors:The person, vehicle, and environmental conditions present at the time of the crash. No judgment is made as to whether any factor is related to the reason for a particular crash, just whether the factor was present. The list of the many factors that can be coded provides enough information to describe the circumstances of the crash.

Critical Events

Three major types of critical events were assigned to large trucks:

  • Running out of the travel lane, either into another lane or off the road (32 percent of the large trucks in the LTCCS sample were assigned this critical event)
  • Vehicle loss of control due to traveling too fast for conditions, cargo shift, vehicle systems failure, poor road conditions, or other reasons (29 percent)
  • Colliding with the rear end of another vehicle in the truck's travel lane (22 percent).

Critical Reasons

The percentage of large trucks coded with a critical reason depends on the type of crash:

Of the large trucks involved inallLTCCS crashes (single-vehicle and multi-vehicle), 55 percent were assigned the critical reason in crashes.
Of the large trucks involved intwo-vehicleLTCCS crashes between one truck and one passenger vehicle (a car, van, pickup truck, or sport utility vehicle), 44 percent were assigned the critical reason.

Table 1 shows the critical reasons assigned, by major categories.

Critical ReasonsNumber of TrucksPercent of Total
Total Number of Large Trucks Coded with Critical Reason78,000100%
Total Number of Large Trucks Not Coded with Critical Reason63,000
Total Number of Large Trucks Involved in Crashes141,000

Notes:Results shown are national estimates for the 141,000 large trucks estimated to have been involved in fatal and injury crashes during the study period. The estimates may differ from true values, because they are based on a probability sample of crashes and not a census of all crashes. Estimates are rounded to the nearest 1,000 large trucks.

(Video) mod10lec47

Driver critical reasons are coded in four categories:

  • Non-Performance:The driver fell asleep, was disabled by a heart attack or seizure, or was physically impaired for another reason.
  • Recognition:The driver was inattentive, was distracted by something inside or outside the vehicle, or failed to observe the situation adequately for some other reason.
  • Decision:For example, the driver was driving too fast for conditions, misjudged the speed of other vehicles, or followed other vehicles too closely.
  • Performance:For example, the driver panicked, overcompensated, or exercised poor directional control.

Associated Factors

Hundreds of associated factors were collected for each vehicle in each crash. In descending order, the top 10 factors coded for large trucks and their drivers were:

  • Brake problems
  • Traffic flow interruption (congestion, previous crash)
  • Prescription drug use
  • Traveling too fast for conditions
  • Unfamiliarity with roadway
  • Roadway problems
  • Required to stop before crash (traffic control device, crosswalk)
  • Over-the-counter drug use
  • Inadequate surveillance
  • Fatigue.

Relative Risk

Relative risk analysis of the data on associated factors, using the critical event and critical reason coding, allows the sorting out of factors into those merely present at the time of the crash and those that increase the risk of having a crash. The trucks involved in LTCCS crashes can be divided into two groups: those that were assigned the critical event and critical reason and those that were not. When the presence of associated factors coded to the two groups is compared, the relative risk of each factor can be assessed, as the following examples illustrate:

If 30 percent of the trucks assigned the critical reason for a crash were coded with the driver associated factor 'traveling too fast for conditions,' while only 5 percent of the trucks that werenotassigned the critical reason were coded with the same associated factor, it can be concluded that speed is a factor that increases the risk of being involved in a crash.
If 30 percent of the trucks assigned the critical reason for a crash were coded with the driver associated factor 'prescription drug use,' while 30 percent of the trucks that werenotassigned the critical reason were also coded with the same associated factor, it can be concluded that prescription drug use is not a factor that increases the risk of being involved in a crash.

Table 2 shows the 19 associated factors that were coded most frequently for large trucks in the LTCCS,where there was a statistically significant association between the factor and the assignment of the critical reason. The order of the factors in the table is based on the number and percentage of trucks assessed with each factor. The relative risk number is a ratio of the critical reason coding for trucks coded with the factor, compared with trucks not coded with the factor. Thus, Table 2 shows that a truck with brake problems was 170 percent more likely to be coded with the critical reason for a crash than a truck that was not coded with the brake problems associated factor.

Table 2

Associated Factors Assigned in Large Truck Crashes and Their Relative Risk Importance

FactorsNumber of TrucksPercent of TotalRelative Risk
Vehicle: Brake problems41,00029%2.7
Driver: Traveling too fast for conditions32,00023%7.7
Driver: Unfamiliar with roadway31,00022%2.0
Environment: Roadway problems29,00020%1.5
Driver: Over-the-counter drug use25,00017%1.3
Driver: Inadequate surveillance20,00014%9.3
Driver: Fatigue18,00013%8.0
Driver: Felt under work pressure from carrier16,00010%4.7
Driver: Made illegal maneuver13,0009%26.4
Driver: Inattention12,0009%17.1
Driver: External distraction11,0008%5.1
Vehicle: Tire problems8,0006%2.5
Driver: Following too close7,0005%22.6
Driver: Jackknife7,0005%4.7
Vehicle: Cargo shift6,0004%56.3
Driver: Illness4,0003%34.0
Driver: Internal distraction3,0002%5.8
Driver: Illegal drugs3,0002%1.8
Driver: Alcohol1,0001%5.3

Notes:Results shown are national estimates for the 141,000 large trucks estimated to have been involved in fatal and injury crashes during the study period. The estimates may differ from true values, because they are based on a probability sample of crashes and not a census of all crashes. Estimates are rounded to the nearest 1,000 large trucks.

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Of the top 10 associated factors coded for large trucks, 3 do not appear in Table 2. For those three associated factors—traffic flow interruption, prescription drug use, and required to stop before crash—there was no significant difference in the frequency at which trucks with and without the factors were coded with the critical reason for a crash.

It is important to note both the number of times an associated factor is coded and its relative risk ratio. For example, the brake problems associated factor is the most frequently coded (29 percent), but it has a lower relative risk ratio than those for 13 other factors. Pre-crash cargo shift, with the highest relative risk ratio (56.3), was reported for only 4 percent of the large trucks involved in LTCCS crashes.

Of the 19 factors listed in Table 2, 15 are driver factors. Those 15 driver factors can be divided into two major groups. One group—fatigue, illness, and drug use (both legal and illegal)—reflects the condition of the driver before the crash. The other group—excessive speed, inadequate surveillance, illegal maneuver, inattention, distraction (outside the truck and inside the truck), and following too close—reflects driving mistakes.

Large Truck – Passenger Vehicle Crashes

One-half of the LTCCS crashes involved collisions between a large truck and a passenger vehicle (car, pickup truck, van, or sport utility vehicle). In those crashes, the same associated factors coded most often for the large trucks usually were also coded most often for the passenger vehicles. For both large trucks and passenger vehicles, there was a statistically significant link between the following 10 associated factors (listed in descending order according to how often they were coded for the large truck) and coding of the critical reason:

  • Interruption of the traffic flow
  • Unfamiliarity with roadway
  • Inadequate surveillance
  • Driving too fast for conditions
  • Illegal maneuver
  • Inattention
  • Fatigue
  • Illness
  • False assumption of other road user's actions
  • Distraction by object or person inside the vehicle.

There are some important differences in the coding of associated factors between the two vehicle types. For large trucks, but not passenger vehicles, following too closely (a traffic situation that required a stop before the crash) and distraction outside the vehicle were statistically related to assignment of the critical reason. In addition, vehicle factors that were not coded or examined for the passenger vehicles (brakes, tires, jackknife, and cargo shift) were statistically linked to assignment of the critical reason for large trucks.

For passenger vehicles, but not for trucks, alcohol and illegal drug use have a statistically significant association with coding of the critical reason. These factors, combined with fatigue (coded twice as often for passenger vehicles as for large trucks) and illness (coded five times more often for passenger vehicles), show that passenger vehicle drivers were subject to adverse physical conditions more often than truck drivers were before the crashes occurred.

Study and Data on FMCSA's Web Site

More information on the Large Truck Crash Causation Study can be found here. The LTCCS home page includes links to a downloadable version of the public database; users manual; codebook; 20 sample data tables; Report to Congress; LTCCS Analysis Series reports on the study methodology and on the use of the study data for statistical analyses of crash risk; and an overview presentation (PowerPoint) of the study results. For answers to specific questions, call the FMCSA Analysis Division at (202) 366-4039.

(Video) Case Study Doctrine of Causation and Intervening Cause


What does research show as the critical reason for the majority of large truck crashes? ›

Traveling too fast for conditions. Unfamiliarity with roadway. Roadway problems. Required to stop before crash (traffic control device, crosswalk)

What are the most crashes involving large trucks caused by? ›

Causes of Truck Accidents

Driving while fatigued. Failing to adjust driving to road and weather conditions. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Speeding and driving recklessly.

Does the Nhtsa estimates that truck driver fatigue contributes to 40% of all heavy truck crashes? ›

Understanding the Dangers of Drowsy Driving

The NHTSA estimates that truck driver fatigue contributes to 40% of all heavy truck crashes. The National Transportation Safety Board study found that fatigue was a prominent factor in 52% of 107 heavy truck crashes.

How much more likely are big trucks to get into accidents? ›

What Percentage of Crashes Are Truck Accidents? According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 9.8% of vehicles² involved in fatal crashes are large trucks.

What are the two main factors attributed to crashes? ›

Here is a list of eight major contributing factors in auto accidents:
  • Distracted driving.
  • Decision-making errors.
  • Fatigue.
  • Malfunctioning equipment.
  • Ill-serviced vehicle.
  • Hazardous driving conditions.
  • Ignorance of rules.
  • Speeding.
May 9, 2023

What is the primary cause of most crashes? ›

Traveling above the posted speed limit or too fast for roadway conditions is a primary cause of car accidents and traffic fatalities in California. In 2020, speeding contributed to 1,228 car accident deaths.

What are the three most common types of collisions involving heavy trucks? ›

7 Most Common Types of Truck Accidents
  • Truck Rollovers. A truck rollover accident is one of the most catastrophic and terrifying wrecks imaginable. ...
  • Rear-End Collisions. ...
  • Head-On Collisions. ...
  • Jackknife Accidents. ...
  • T-Bone Accidents. ...
  • Sideswipe Accidents. ...
  • Wide Turn Accidents.

What was the worst truck accident ever? ›

California. On April 7th, 1982 a gasoline tanker truck set off a fire in the Caldecott Tunnel. This accident resulted in major damage to the tunnel, and it had to be closed to traffic for several months. Seven individuals died and two more were injured.

Who is more at risk during a large truck collision? ›

Most deaths in large truck crashes are passenger vehicle occupants. Large trucks often weigh 20-30 times as much as passenger vehicles.

What percentage of truck accidents are caused by fatigue? ›

While a number of different factors may contribute truck accidents in the state of Arizona, truck driver fatigue is cited as causing up to 30 percent of all semi-truck crashes.

Who is affected most by fatigue-related crashes? ›

The overwhelming majority of fatigued drivers involved in fatal crashes for 2008 to 2016 are males (80 per cent) with males aged under 50 years accounting for 49 per cent of all fatigued drivers involved in fatal crashes.

What percent of driver error contributes to crashes? ›

Most of the time, auto accidents are preventable. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) found that somewhere between 94% and 96% of all motor vehicle accidents are caused by some type of human error.

Which state has the most truck accidents? ›

While Texas, Florida, and California lead with the most truck accidents, they also lead in the most fatalities involving large trucks. The National Safety Council states that these states had the following number of fatalities from truck accidents in 2020: Texas: 643 fatalities. California: 398 fatalities.

Where are large trucks most likely to lose speed? ›

Large trucks, bicycles, and some cars lose speed on long or steep hills.

Are full size trucks safer than cars? ›

Larger and heavier objects are generally safer than smaller and lighter objects. Large vehicles are heavier, have longer tops, and have larger impact zones, gaining an advantage in impact collisions.

What are the 3 factors leading to a higher crash risk? ›

Driver inattention, distractions, and drunk and drugged driving are all major contributing factors to traffic accidents.

What is one of the top 5 causes of accidents in the US? ›

What Are the Top 5 Causes of Car Accidents?
  • Distracted Driving. Distracted driving occurs when a driver is visually, physically, or mentally diverted from the task of driving. ...
  • Tailgating. Tailgating is the act of driving too closely behind another vehicle. ...
  • Drowsy Driving. ...
  • Speeding. ...
  • Intoxication.
Aug 23, 2022

What are the 5 causes of accident? ›

5 Common Causes of Car Accidents
  • Driving under the influence. Drunk driving is a careless action that too many people take. ...
  • Distracted driving. Too many drivers are distracted while operating their vehicles. ...
  • Reckless driving. ...
  • Illegally driving through intersections. ...
  • Drowsiness.

What type of crash is most often fatal? ›

When looking at collisions between motor vehicles, angle collisions cause the greatest number of deaths (about 9,000 in 2021).

What are the 4 major causes of vehicle collisions? ›

Common Causes of Vehicle Collisions

Unsafe speed. Driver distractions. Driving on the wrong side of the road. Improper turns.

What are the 3 types of collisions that occur in a crash? ›

There are actually three collisions in every crash: the vehicle collision; the human collision; and the internal collision (inside your body).

What are the most unsafe trucks? ›

The F-150 is the most popular vehicle of any kind in the U.S., a distinction it's held for many years. But along with its stablemates, the larger F-250 and F-350 Super Duty trucks, the F-150 accounts for more fatal accidents than anything else on the road.

What vehicle has the highest accident rate? ›

We compared the top 5 cars that occurred in the most crashes in each state to the number of those models sold in the U.S. in 2021.
  1. Honda Accord. Number of Crashes in US States per 100,000 Sold Cars: 2,627.84. ...
  2. Nissan Altima. Number of Crashes in US States per 100,000 Sold Cars: 1,877.12. ...
  3. Chevrolet Silverado.

What is the most common type of fatal lift truck accident? ›

The most common type of lift truck accident is one of the most fatal: being crushed by a lift truck. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that most fatal lift truck accidents happen when a worker is crushed by a forklift overturns or falls from a loading dock.

What is the leading cause of death for truck drivers? ›

Car Accidents are the Leading Cause of on-the-job Death for Truck Drivers in the U.S.

Where is the largest no zone for a large truck located? ›

Right Side No-Zone: As the largest truck blind spot, it is crucial that drivers avoid passing on the right side. If you can't see the truck driver in his side mirror, it is safe to say he or she can't see you either. If you have to pass, make sure you pass on the left side.

Which driver is most likely to be involved in a fatal crash? ›

Teen drivers have a much higher risk of being involved in a crash than older drivers at the same blood alcohol concentration (BAC), even at BAC levels below the legal limit for adults.

Who is at the greatest risk of driver fatigue? ›

Male drivers are more likely to experience sleep-related crashes than females. Drivers under 30 are at higher risk than older drivers, and are most likely to crash due to tiredness in the early morning after little or no sleep.

Who is most at risk of driver fatigue? ›

Commercial drivers, especially those who drive a high number of miles at night. Drivers with untreated sleep disorders (e.g., insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea) Business travelers who spend many hours driving. Drivers taking medications that may cause drowsiness.

How many truck drivers fall asleep at the wheel? ›

Studies suggest that drowsy drivers may cause up to 40% of big truck crashes. Two-thirds of truck drivers admit to driving while tired on at least half of the trips they make, and 13% admitted to falling asleep while driving.

What are six 6 symptoms of fatigue? ›

Symptoms of fatigue
  • chronic tiredness or sleepiness.
  • headache.
  • dizziness.
  • sore or aching muscles.
  • muscle weakness.
  • slowed reflexes and responses.
  • impaired decision-making and judgement.
  • moodiness, such as irritability.

What is the number one cause of extreme fatigue? ›

Most of the time fatigue can be traced to one or more lifestyle issues, such as poor sleep habits or lack of exercise. Fatigue can be caused by a medicine or linked to depression. Sometimes fatigue is a symptom of an illness that needs treatment.

What are 5 practical tips for avoiding fatigue? ›

How to avoid fatigue
  • Get enough quality sleep before you begin driving. ...
  • The worst time to begin your trip is after work. ...
  • Aim not to travel more than 8 to 10 hours each day.
  • Take regular 15 minute breaks at least every two hours. ...
  • If possible share the driving. ...
  • Eat well balanced meals at your usual meal times.

What do 80% of all crashes result from? ›

62% of distracted driving results from drivers losing mental focus on the road. 80% of car accidents are caused by a driver being distracted.

What is the best remedy for driving fatigue? ›

How to reduce fatigue on the road:
  1. Get enough rest the night before your drive: ...
  2. Try not to start your car trip very late in the day: ...
  3. Maintain a good body posture: ...
  4. Keep the car's environment stimulating: ...
  5. Take frequent breaks: ...
  6. Avoid heavy meals: ...
  7. Stop at a rest stop: ...
  8. Do not drink while driving your vehicle:

What is the spider method? ›

Method/results: A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response.

What state has the safest drivers? ›

New Jersey

What state drives the least trucks? ›

Florida and Illinois, which are the flattest states in the country, are among the states with the lowest share of pickup trucks.

What state is best for truckers? ›

Oklahoma. The Sooner State is the American nirvana for trucking. It has low gas prices, wide open spaces and few regulations on the industry. There is hardly ever any traffic in Oklahoma, which means truckers can drive farther using less gas.

What stops faster a loaded truck or empty truck? ›

The breaks, springs, shock absorbers, and tires on heavy load trucks are specifically designed to work better when the vehicle is loaded. This means that empty trucks take longer to stop than loaded trucks, and require a greater stopping distance. There is less traction with an empty vehicle.

What is the busiest interstate in the US for trucks? ›

We all know that I-90 is the busiest highway for truckers across the country. Stretching from Seattle, WA to Boston, MA it is also the longest highway across the states. Here are some other busy highways: I-80 – this highway stretches across 11 states – making it the second longest highway in the country.

What is the most driven truck in America? ›

The Ford F-Series is still the number one best-selling truck for 46 consecutive years. Ford delivered over 650,000 examples of the F-Series in 2022.

Which full-size truck has the least problems? ›

The most reliable full-size truck is the Toyota Tundra with a 8.6 out of 10 reliability score. The Ford F-150 is the second most reliable full-size truck with a rating of 8.5 out of 10. The average reliability score for the full-size truck category is 8.1, with 5 models scoring above average for reliability.

What is the safest vehicle to drive? ›

According to the IIHS, which is funded by the insurance industry, Toyota and Lexus rack up the most awards, followed by Honda and Acura. Mazda comes in next. Both small SUVs and midsized luxury SUVs take home the most wins, although the list includes vehicles of all types. A Rivian R1T after a front offset crash test.

What is the main cause of 94% of crashes and collisions? ›

The safety benefits of automated vehicles are paramount. Automated vehicles' potential to save lives and reduce injuries is rooted in one critical and tragic fact: 94% of serious crashes are due to human error.

Why are truck accidents increasing? ›

More trucks on the road means more vehicles with enormous blind spots which can cause wrecks. Drivers are also more distracted than ever as technology continues to advance, making for more dangerous roadways.

What is the cause of 90% of car accidents in the world? ›

Several other studies have produced similar results, and every study that we know of shows that the percentage of car accidents that are caused by human error is at least 90%.

What is a major factor in most crashes and near crashes? ›

Driver inattention is a major factor in most crashes and near-crashes.

What is 3 one of the top contributing factors in many crashes? ›

Driver inattention, distractions, and drunk and drugged driving are all major contributing factors to traffic accidents. Drivers have a duty to drive carefully and avoid causing foreseeable injuries to other motorists.

What is the #1 type of wreck in the US? ›

As their name suggests, rear-end collisions occur when one vehicle strikes the back of another vehicle, says the NHTSA.

What is the difference between a crash and an accident? ›

The word accident implies that a car crash happened through the fault of nobody in particular. This can be seen in the commonly used phrase, “It was just an accident.” On the other hand, the word crash indicates that someone caused the car wreck to happen, or that someone is actually at fault.

Which vehicles cause the most accidents? ›

One study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety revealed that drivers and passengers of pickup trucks are 2.5 times more likely to suffer fatal injuries in a traffic accident.

In which location is a crash most likely? ›

The most common places that experience automobile accidents are rural areas, interstates, intersections, and parking lots.

What speed is fatal in a car crash? ›

When a car is going slowly, the risk of serious injury is about 1%. At 50 mph, the risk increases to 69% for injury and the risk for serious injury increases to 52%. A fatal car accident is practically inevitable at speeds of 70 mph or more.


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